Wafer-scale epitaxial modulation of quantum dot density

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


  • N. Bart
  • C. Dangel
  • P. Zajac
  • N. Spitzer
  • J. Ritzmann
  • M. Schmidt
  • H. G. Babin
  • R. Schott
  • S. R. Valentin
  • S. Scholz
  • Y. Wang
  • R. Uppu
  • D. Najer
  • M. C. Loebl
  • N. Tomm
  • A. Javadi
  • N. O. Antoniadis
  • K. Mueller
  • R. J. Warburton
  • A. D. Wieck
  • J. J. Finley
  • A. Ludwig

Nucleation control of self-assembled quantum dots is challenging. Here, the authors employ conventional molecular beam epitaxy to achieve wafer-scale density modulation of high-quality quantum dots with tunable periodicity on unpatterned substrates.

Precise control of the properties of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) is vital for creating novel devices for quantum photonics and advanced opto-electronics. Suitable low QD-densities for single QD devices and experiments are challenging to control during epitaxy and are typically found only in limited regions of the wafer. Here, we demonstrate how conventional molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) can be used to modulate the density of optically active QDs in one- and two- dimensional patterns, while still retaining excellent quality. We find that material thickness gradients during layer-by-layer growth result in surface roughness modulations across the whole wafer. Growth on such templates strongly influences the QD nucleation probability. We obtain density modulations between 1 and 10 QDs/mu m(2) and periods ranging from several millimeters down to at least a few hundred microns. This method is universal and expected to be applicable to a wide variety of different semiconductor material systems. We apply the method to enable growth of ultra-low noise QDs across an entire 3-inch semiconductor wafer.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1633
JournalNature Communications
Issue number1
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - 28 Mar 2022

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