Extreme climate after massive eruption of Alaska's Okmok volcano in 43 bce and effects on the late roman republic and ptolemaic kingdom

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  • Joseph R. McConnell
  • Michael Sigl
  • Gill Plunkett
  • Andrea Burke
  • Woon Mi Kim
  • Christoph C. Raible
  • Andrew I. Wilson
  • Joseph G. Manning
  • Francis Ludlow
  • Nathan J. Chellman
  • Helen M. Innes
  • Zhen Yang
  • Jessica F. Larsen
  • Janet R. Schaefer
  • Sepp Kipfstuhl
  • Seyedhamidreza Mojtabavi
  • Frank Wilhelms
  • Thomas Opel
  • Hanno Meyer
  • Steffensen, Jørgen Peder

The assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BCE triggered a power struggle that ultimately ended the Roman Republic and, eventually, the Ptolemaic Kingdom, leading to the rise of the Roman Empire. Climate proxies and written documents indicate that this struggle occurred during a period of unusually inclement weather, famine, and disease in the Mediterranean region; historians have previously speculated that a large volcanic eruption of unknown origin was the most likely cause. Here we show using well-dated volcanic fallout records in six Arctic ice cores that one of the largest volcanic eruptions of the past 2,500 y occurred in early 43 BCE, with distinct geochemistry of tephra deposited during the event identifying the Okmok volcano in Alaska as the source. Climate proxy records show that 43 and 42 BCE were among the coldest years of recent millennia in the Northern Hemisphere at the start of one of the coldest decades. Earth system modeling suggests that radiative forcing from this massive, high-latitude eruption led to pronounced changes in hydroclimate, including seasonal temperatures in specific Mediterranean regions as much as 7 °C below normal during the 2 y period following the eruption and unusually wet conditions. While it is difficult to establish direct causal linkages to thinly documented historical events, the wet and very cold conditions from this massive eruption on the opposite side of Earth probably resulted in crop failures, famine, and disease, exacerbating social unrest and contributing to political realignments throughout the Mediterranean region at this critical juncture of Western civilization.

Original languageEnglish
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (PNAS)
Issue number27
Pages (from-to)15443-15449
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - 7 Jul 2020

    Research areas

  • Climate forcing, Ice core, Okmok, Rome, Volcano

ID: 247950730